Within Aetheria communication is surprisingly easy. In fact any sentient being should be able to communicate with any other sentient being. This is due to the raw aether facilitating mind to mind communication. Sentients who usually perceive communication as an auditory action will mostly think of Aetherian communication as auditory as well, however sentients such as Octmen who communicate primarily through visual means are more likely to understand the mental nature of communication in the Aether.
Due to the fact that the communication is facilitated mind to mind only those spoken to directly will receive a translation. When overhearing conversations between others (where the speaker does not wish to communicate with all in the area) the unintended listener will hear (or see) the conversation in the language of the speaker.
The mind to mind nature of this does not mean that cultural misunderstanding is completely avoided. If the listening race does not have a word for a concept it will not be communicated. Concepts such as these must be greatly simplified if this is the case, and can lead to long, tedious conversations that may lead nowhere.